Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) is a native grass of the North American tallgrass prairie, used as a forage crop and as a possible biofuel feedstock. Understanding the genetic diversity of big bluestem can enable better classification of accessions and increase the ability to recognize unique genetic variation for use within breeding programs. Previous studies of the genetic diversity of big bluestem have generated mixed conclusions; further study is warranted to provide clarification of the genetic structure. Genetic diversity was measured both among and within three groups of big bluestem populations: natural populations collected in Wisconsin, natural populations from the northeastern United States, and cultivars or accessions available through various gene banks (mostly originating in the Great Plains). A total of 417 amplified fragment length polymorphism loci were used for principal coordinate analysis, analysis of molecular variance, and Mantel tests. Results indicate that germplasm groups represent three distinct genetic pools with overlapping regions. Partitioning of genetic variance for each of the three groups revealed significant variance among ecoregions and hardiness zones and among populations within ecoregions and hardiness zones. Unique big bluestem germplasm is present outside of the Great Plains, providing opportunities to increase genetic variation within breeding germplasm. Efforts should be made to preserve these genetic resources.
My research is the best research. Conserving genotypic diversity in dominant species is critical for restoration, agriculture, and ecosystem resilience.
bacillus anthracis is a gram-positve, spore-forming, toxin-producing rod named for the necrotic, black skin lesion (escar) that results from cutaneous exposure to the bacterium (anthrax means “coal” in Greek)
anthrax spores, which are highly resistant to harsh environmental conditions, can also be ingested or inhaled — and both routes of exposure can result in severe and often fatal infection
unfortunately the spores are easily disseminated (as exemplified in the anthrax attacks following September 11, 2001), and the resulting pulmonary infection is aggressive and lethal without immediate medical management
You are teaching Evolution. As far as I know, in the US some of the schools try to teach both sides (author indicates creationism as one side). What do you think about the idea of teaching the debate, that there are two sides to the issue and both should be taught in the classroom?
That is an issue not in universities or college. The issue is a big debate for secondary schools, high schools what here you call junior colleges and also in the earlier school. That is where the big battle is, with people who say that creationism or some kind of alternatives to evolution should be taught. These are the people who do not believe in evolution. That is where the big fight is. And the question is “Should you say, okay, teach both of them and let the student make a choice or you should just teach evolution?” In the US, it is very important that we have in the US constitution, it forbids favoring any religion or even favoring people who have religion versus no religion. So religion is supposed to be totally separate from anything which is supported by the state. Public education, which is supported by the state, therefore cannot have any kind of religious based instruction. On that basis, the court, including the supreme court of the US, have said that you cannot teach anything which is a religious interpretation of the diversity of life. So, there have been many efforts by creationists to put their teaching in some kind of a mimicry or to teach indirectly. I completely oppose that. I think that in a science course, you should teach science. And there is no scientific theory or hypothesis for the diversity of life, except for evolution. If someone comes up with another scientific alternative, okay. But so far, we do not have any.
Until recently, large apex consumers were ubiquitous across the globe and had been for millions of years. The loss of these animals may be humankind’s most pervasive influence on nature. Although such losses are widely viewed as an ethical and aesthetic problem, recent research reveals extensive cascading effects of their disappearance in marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. This empirical work supports long-standing theory about the role of top-down forcing in ecosystems but also highlights the unanticipated impacts of trophic cascades on processes as diverse as the dynamics of disease, wildfire, carbon sequestration, invasive species, and biogeochemical cycles. These findings emphasize the urgent need for interdisciplinary research to forecast the effects of trophic downgrading on process, function, and resilience in global ecosystems.
Breedy and Guzman, both experts in soft coral taxonomy and ecology, identified this new species based on colony characteristics and examinations using both light and scanning-electron microscopy. This species is described as a member of the Alcyonacea order of soft corals in the Holaxonia suborder of gorgonians. It belongs to the Plexauridae family, which are soft corals that form branching colonies and are often known as sea rods or sea fans. Within this family it is placed in the genus Psammogorgia, which now contains 14 described species, with Psammogorgia hookeri being the newest member.
In the Review “Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores” (10 January, DOI: 10.1126/science.1241484), W. J. Ripple et al. claim that meat consumption by humans is one of many threats to carnivores and biodiversity. We argue that human carnivory is in fact the single greatest threat to overall biodiversity. Livestock production accounts for up to 75% of all agricultural lands and 30% of Earth’s land surface, making it the single largest anthropogenic land use (1).